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999 West Dundee Road
Wheeling, Illinois 60090

Phone: 847-537-8270

Superintendent: Dr. Michael Connolly

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Eighth Grade

Speaking & Listening

Critical Content

Power Standards

  • Defend claims and findings from independent research, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with sound valid reasoning. (SL 8.4)
  • Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats and determine the relevance of an author’s/speaker’s argument, and sufficiency of evidence presented, and express the potential impact of this message on society. (SL 8.2, 8.3 & RL 8.6 & RI 8.6, 8.8)

 

Power Standards Critical Content

In the language of instruction, students will…

  • Effectively participate in one-on-one, group, and teacher-led discussions by
    • Actively listen and observe when information is presented in diverse formats and media
    • Identify and analyze the author’s/presenter’s purpose and motivation
    • Determine the credibility of a speaker
    • Identify claims that are supported by fact(s) and those that are opinion(s)
    • Recognize when an author introduces irrelevant evidence (unrelated to unnecessary evidence) to his/her argument
    • Evaluate if a speaker’s argument is reasonable (sound) and supported by sufficient evidence
    • Utilize strategic speaking strategies when preparing both formal and informal verbal presentations
    • Identify the side of an argument and the salient points presented to support the argument an author presents in a text
    • Support claims and/or findings with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details
    • Present information in a logical sequence using appropriate eye contact, pace/rate, tone, expression, body-language, adequate volume and clear pronunciation
    • Evaluate how differences in the points of view of a character and the audience (reader) of a text can create effects like suspense or humor
    • Evaluate how an author develops the points of view of characters, narrators, and speakers by revealing thoughts, feelings, actions, and spoken words
    • Analyze how an author addresses conflicting evidence or view points

*Other media formats: written text, text read aloud, charts, graphs, web sites, presentations, speeches, movies, articles

 

Additional Critical Content

In the language of instruction, students will…

  • Effectively participate in one-on-one, group, and teacher-led discussions
    • Collaborate with peers to set guidelines, (norms), goals, and roles for class discussions/group work and adhere to them
    • Discuss and support one’s own ideas, and justify position as needed
    • Draw from and reflect on the ideas of others
    • Prepare for discussions by reading and researching class materials beforehand
    • Use evidence from texts and other research discussion
  • Participate in friendly discussions and decision-making activities
    • Pose and respond to questions that connect to the central ideas of discussion
    • Acknowledge new ideas introduced in a discussion or collaborative activity
  • Clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest by incorporating multimedia and visual components into presentations
  • Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks depending on purpose and audience
  • Demonstrate a command of formal English when necessary

 

Concept-Based Connections

Essential Understandings

  • Effective listening and speaking skills are critical for communicating, collaborating, understanding and evaluating our world.
  • Presentation of knowledge and ideas is enhanced through appropriate use of organization, style and language for a specific audience using various media formats.

 

Factual Guiding Questions

  • What will help make meaning when using a variety of sources?
  • What makes a presentation “great”?
  • Why do the rules of language matter?
  • What does effective communication look like?
  • What are the differences in speaking strategies for formal and informal presentations?
  • What makes various media formats suspenseful?

 

Conceptual Guiding Questions

  • What makes collaboration meaningful?
  • What is motivation?
  • What is humor?
  • How might an audience’s perspective affect the speaker’s strategies in a speech?

 

Engaging/Debatable Guiding Questions

  • Why does it matter “what I say” versus “how I say it”?
  • What makes an author/speaker credible?
  • How is some evidence more supportive of an argument than others? What makes evidence salient?
  • What is humorous in media?

 

Language Considerations

Language General Transfer-Students must draw upon the following…

Auditory skills

  • Auditory memory: remember what has been heard
  • Auditory sequencing: ability to see objects in a particular sequential order
  • Auditory discrimination: hear the difference between sounds that are similar
  • Discourse pattern (logical arrangement of ideas) vary depending on the culture and the native language of the speaker

 

Non-cognitive transfer

  • Attention
  • Listening
  • Concentration
  • Persistence
  • Task Completion

 

Self-esteem transfer

  • Being literate
  • Feeling capable
  • Possessing specific competencies
  • Achieving
  • Believing in one’s ability to learn

 

Common among all languages

  • Develop Oral Language
  • Match speech to print
  • Contextualized literacy instruction
  • Meaningful
  • Active
  • Comparative
  • Recurrent

 

English language specific

  • See above critical content and additional critical content
  • English is the U.S. develops discourse that is deductive and linear: thesis/topic sentence, main idea, support, conclusion.
  • Gender differences in the U.S.
    • Male – Academic, direct, and confrontative; short, quick to the point
    • Female – Inductive, main idea alluded to, not explicit, receiver is supposed to guess the idea, intent

 

Spanish language specific

  • Verb conjugation and inflection
  • Verb and adjective gender and number agreement
  • Irregular verbs
  • Code-switching
  • Spanglish
  • El/La (articles that reflect number and gender)
  • Word order patterns
  • Cognates
  • Dialects (regional dialects)
  • Tildes
  • Diéresis
  • Circular/Spiral
  • Distinguish between formal and informal style of speaking according to audience and purpose (Tú vs. Usted).
  • Digression or tangential discourse patterns
  • Romance languages (Spanish) develops discourse by digression
    • Takes lots of time; begin with topic, go off on tangent, contradict tangent, conclude with main idea
    • Flowery, fancy, formal intensifiers
    • Reiteration, say it up to 7 times (average is 3 times) each time gets bigger, better, more flowery than before
  • Respect, honor and teach dialectical differences within culture and regions

 

English language development

  • Logical arrangement of ideas is culture bound
  • True message is given in the discourse pattern and not in the words
  • Chicano English (2nd to 6th generation) uses an oral, social contact dialect.
    • Conversational in tone
    • Casual register, all social, basic intercommunication skills
    • Used like one is addressing a peer audience
    • Run on sentences’ additive relationships (and then, and the… end with “that’s all I’ve got to say”)
    • Subconscious deviations (I didn’t know they had done it)
    • Little evidence of planning and organizing before writing
    • Stream of consciousness links (one idea links another to topic)
    • Use lexical chains alone to link ideas (vocabulary holds composition together)
    • Redundancy (limited vocabulary) elements of people who don’t read or don’t know academic English.
  • Exposure to American English discourse pattern found in explicitly within subject area content.

 

Russian language specific

  • Discourse pattern: Situational, always changes; sometimes one way, next time rearrange story and give different version; may appear to others to be inconsistent because of changes in discourse pattern

 

Polish language specific

  • Discourse pattern reflective of Polish culture

 

Assessments

Informal Assessments are used during the process of brainstorming, drafting, revision and editing or class discussions.

In the language of instruction students will…

  • Anecdotal notes while students are engaged in discussions
    • Answer questions using salient evidence from research/text
    • Use academic language
    • Link one’s own comments to others’
    • Act according to agreed upon discussion rules/roles
    • Use salient evidence to support claims
    • Use logical and explicit evidence to support claims
    • Consistently use complete/complex sentences
    • Demonstrate active listening strategies
  • Student self-reflections, self-assessment
  • Student peer-reflections, peer-assessment

 

Formal Assessments are used as a measure of student achievement towards mastery of a skill and Power Standard. Often a formal assessment will result in a grade.

In the language of instruction students will…

  • Compose and present a formal speech
  • Oral Presentation Rubrics
    • Student generated
  • Student peer evaluations