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999 West Dundee Road
Wheeling, Illinois 60090

Phone: 847-537-8270

Superintendent: Dr. Michael Connolly

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Language Arts

Speaking & Listening

Critical Content

Power Standards

  • Pose and answer questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations in order to delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluate the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. (SL.7.1 , 7.3)
  • Analyze the purpose of and motivation behind the author’s/speaker’s message from various formats (i.e., books, movies, speeches, articles, etc.) and present an argument in support or opposition of the author’s view. (SL 7.2, 7.4 & RL 7.6 & RI 7.6, 7.8)

 

Power Standards Critical Content

In the language of instruction, students will…

  • Effectively participate in one-on-one, group, and teacher-led discussions by
    • Preparing for discussions in advance (e.g., pre-reading, coding text, collecting evidence through research)
    • Clearly explaining ideas
    • Supporting arguments with evidence from text and other research (e.g., descriptions, facts, details, and examples)
    • Posing relevant questions, responding with evidential remarks to questions, and elaborating on peers’ comments and ideas
    • Making relevant observations and using ideas and comments to bring a discussion back on topic
    • Reviewing key ideas presented by others and integrating salient ideas when appropriate
    • Acknowledging new ideas and perspectives and modifying one’s own views when appropriate
    • Using appropriate fluency, expression, volume and rhythm, cadence, eye contact, body language, and clear pronunciation
    • Outline a speaker’s argument and list specific claims he or she makes
    • Evaluate a speaker’s reasoning and use of evidence
    • Identify and evaluate the side of an argument an author presents in a text
    • Determine the credibility of the author and his/her purpose (who wrote it, when it was written, and why it was written)
    • Evaluate an argument using the evidence an author provides and determine if the evidence provided is relevant and sufficient enough to support the claim
  • Analyze how and why an author develops the points of view of different characters/people by revealing thoughts, feelings, actions, and spoken words
    • First person (an inside narrator tells the story: “I”); gives the reader/listener insight into his/her own thoughts
    • Second person (narrator speaks directly to reader: “you”); draws the reader into the story by talking directly to reader/listener
    • Third person (an outside narrator tells the story: “he”, “she”, or “it”); allows the reader to know all the thoughts of all characters
    • Third person limited (an outside narrator tells the story, but know the though of one character)
    • Third person omniscient (an outside narrator tells the story and knows the thoughts of all characters)

*Other media formats: written text, text read aloud, charts, graphs, web sites, presentations, speeches, movies, articles

 

Additional Critical Content

In the language of instruction, students will…

  • Incorporating multimedia and visual components into presentations (clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest)
  • Use and follow established guidelines for class discussions.
  • Identify and use goals and roles of different group members, follow deadlines, and track progress towards achieving these goals
  • Adapt speaking style and structure according to various audiences

 

Concept-Based Connections

Essential Understandings

  • Effective listening and speaking skills are critical for communicating, collaborating, understanding and evaluating our world.
  • Presentation of knowledge and ideas is enhanced through appropriate use of organization, style and language for a specific audience using various media formats.

 

Factual Guiding Questions

  • How does one actively listen?
  • what makes collaboration meaningful?
  • What are the characteristics of an effective speech?
  • What strategies and tools help to organize information from multiple resources?
  • What makes a presentation “great”?
  • How does the use of various points of view influence an audience’s understanding?

 

Conceptual Guiding Questions

  • Why do the rules of language matter?
  • What is motivation?
  • How do effective communication strategies influence others?
  • How might an audience’s perspective affect the speaker’s strategies in a speech?

 

Engaging/Debatable Guiding Questions

  • Why does it matter “What I say” versus “How I say it”?
  • How can one’s speech make a difference in society?
  • How is some evidence more supportive of an argument that others? What makes evidence salient?

 

Language Considerations

Language General Transfer-Students must draw upon the following…

Auditory skills

  • Auditory memory: remember what has been heard
  • Auditory sequencing: ability to see objects in a particular sequential order
  • Auditory discrimination: hear the difference between sounds that are similar

 

Non-cognitive transfer

  • Attention
  • Listening
  • Concentration
  • Persistence
  • Task Completion

 

Self-esteem transfer

  • Being literate
  • Feeling capable
  • Possessing specific competencies
  • Achieving
  • Believing in one’s ability to learn

 

Common among all languages

  • Develop Oral Language
  • Match speech to print
  • Contextualized literacy instruction
  • Meaningful
  • Active
  • Comparative
  • Recurrent

 

English language specific

  • See above critical content and additional critical content
  • English is the U.S. develops discourse that is deductive and linear: thesis/topic sentence, main idea, support, conclusion.
  • Gender differences in the U.S.
    • Male – Academic, direct, and confrontative; short, quick to the point
    • Female – Inductive, main idea alluded to, not explicit, receiver is supposed to guess the idea, intent

 

Spanish language specific

  • Verb conjugation and inflection
  • Verb and adjective gender and number agreement
  • Irregular verbs
  • Code-switching
  • Spanglish
  • El/La (articles that reflect number and gender)
  • Word order patterns
  • Cognates
  • Dialects (regional dialects)
  • Tildes
  • Diéresis
  • Circular/Spiral
  • Distinguish between formal and informal style of speaking according to audience and purpose (Tú vs. Usted).
  • Digression or tangential discourse patterns
  • Romance languages (Spanish) develops discourse by digression
    • Takes lots of time; begin with topic, go off on tangent, contradict tangent, conclude with main idea
    • Flowery, fancy, formal intensifiers
    • Reiteration, say it up to 7 times (average is 3 times) each time gets bigger, better, more flowery than before
  • Respect, honor and teach dialectical differences within culture and regions

 

English language development

  • Chicano English (2nd to 6th generation) uses an oral, social contact dialect.
    • Conversational in tone
    • Casual register, all social, basic intercommunication skills
    • Used like one is addressing a peer audience
    • Run on sentences’ additive relationships (and then, and the… end with “that’s all I’ve got to say”)
    • Subconscious deviations (I didn’t know they had done it)
    • Little evidence of planning and organizing before writing
    • Stream of consciousness links (one idea links another to topic)
    • Use lexical chains alone to link ideas (vocabulary holds composition together)
    • Redundancy (limited vocabulary) elements of people who don’t read or don’t know academic English.
  • Exposure to American English discourse pattern found in explicitly within subject area content.
  • Skills and strategies according to proficiency level of the student.
  • Background knowledge to make sense of and communicate what was heard of what they will speak
  • Discourse patter (logical arrangement of ideas) vary depending on the culture and the native language of the speaker
    • Logical arrangement of ideas is culture bound
    • True message is given in the discourse pattern and not in the words
    • Usually observed in 4th grade and up

 

Russian language specific

  • Discourse pattern: Situational, always changes; sometimes one way, next time rearrange story and give different version; may appear to others to be inconsistent because of changes in discourse pattern

 

Polish language specific

  • Discourse pattern reflective of Polish culture

 

Assessments

Informal Assessments are used during the process of brainstorming, drafting, revision and editing or class discussions.

In the language of instruction students will…

  • Anecdotal notes/rubrics while students are engaged in discussions
    • Use key ideas presented by others
    • Use explicit evidence to clarify the meaning of a topic, text, or issue
    • Use explicit evidence to clarify the meaning of a topic, text, or issue
    • Provide answers to questions using logical and explicit evidence
    • Present information in a logical sequence using appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation
    • Use academic language
    • Link one’s own comments to others’
    • Act according to agreed upon discussion rules/roles
    • Use logical and explicit evidence to support claims
    • Consistently use complete/complex sentences
    • Demonstrate active listening strategies
  • Student self-reflections, self-assessment
  • Student peer-reflections, peer-assessment

 

Formal Assessments are used as a measure of student achievement towards mastery of a skill and Power Standard. Often a formal assessment will result in a grade.

In the language of instruction students will…

  • Compose and present a formal speech
  • Oral Presentation Rubrics
    • Student generated
  • Student peer evaluations